Special Issue (February, 2008)

  SUCCESS FACTORS FOR PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP: CASES IN ALPINE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT
Klaus Weiermair, Mike Peters, Joerg Frehse
 


Sustainable competitiveness in tourism calls for meaningful and appropriate management approaches in order to prevent the exploitation of non-renewable resources. Generally where mass tourism is practiced, resources tend to be overconsumed and hence nature can be harmed. Thus, a major goal of sustainable tourism is to find a balance between resource use and consumer preferences or needs. A tourism nation won’t achieve international competitive advantages through strict prohibitions of resource use but rather through conservation-conscious consumption. Tourism is on the one hand strongly influenced by governmental regulation and on the other hand driven by private, often also short term, interests. The following paper attempts to analyse core benefits and problems of private public partnerships (PPPs) in the tourism industry. The purpose is to derive principles and management imperatives for the formation of private-public partnerships in tourism. In order to evaluate the above mentioned principles we have selected two PPP examples of Austria’s Alpine tourism development. The first case involves the development of the ‘Mountain Beach Water and Nature Park’ in the Western Austrian Alps, the second case study evaluates the cable way development project ‘Muttersberg’ of the Silvretta Nova Group in Vorarlberg (Austria). After a presentation and critical discussion of the case studies, the last part of the paper will conclude with recommendations for PPP practices in tourism and leisure and highlight implications for future research in the field of tourism - development, -financing and -cooperation.
 

  AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SERVICE SECTOR CLUSTERING AND MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES
Naresh R. Pandit, Gary A. S. Cook, Jonathan V. Beaverstock, Pervez N. Ghauri
 


This paper examines the small but growing literature that offers explanations for multinational enterprise (MNE) location in geographical business clusters. It tests some of the propositions of this literature against the findings of a study which compares MNEs and non-MNEs regarding the advantages and disadvantages of a location in the City of London financial services cluster, an agglomeration noted for its extraordinarily large MNE component. The primary conclusion is that MNEs and non-MNEs have different and multiple motives for locating in the cluster. There are two business policy recommendations. For MNEs that are cluster incumbents, because strong clusters have disadvantages (high expense and congestion) and because advantages can change over time, they need to continually assess which activities they need to locate in a cluster and which can be elsewhere. The second recommendation is for MNEs that are not located in relevant clusters, clusters may provide advantages over and above those available to non-MNE competitors.
 

  AN INSIGHT INTO SERVICE PROCESSES IN PUBLIC AND PRIVATE HOSPITALS IN INDIA
Himani Kaul, Shivangi Gupta, Vinnie Jauhari
 


This is an empirical study which explores patient’s disposition towards the public and private sector hospitals in India. The study also explores factors which contribute to the patients over all experience for healthcare services. The major findings of the study are that the patients are more inclined towards using the private hospitals rather than the public hospitals. The human factor that is the behaviour of doctors and the paramedical staff are the key determinants of the patients overall satisfaction level. Numerous factors affect the over well being of patients which include both doctor’s behaviour as well as infrastructure and conditions related with ambience in these hospitals.
 

  ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES CONDUCTED BY PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS IN TAMILNADU –SUCCESS OR FAILURE  M. Edwin Gnanadhas, A.Venkateswaran, R. Rathiha
 


The main objectives of this study are to evaluate the performance of Entrepreneurial Development Programmes from the standpoint of the banks, to study the factors influencing the attitude of the entrepreneurs towards the Entrepreneurship Development Programmes, to give suggestions for conducting the Entrepreneurial Development. This study has been undertaken in all the districts, namely, Chennai, Madurai, Salem, Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Erode, Ramanathapuram, Sivanganga, Tiruch, Villupuram, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Kanyakumari; Pudukottai, Virudhunagar, Cuddalore, Tuticorin, Thanjavur. This study has been pursued from the point of view of the entrepreneurs who attended training programmes and started industrial units. The study also analyzed the motivational factors responsible for the active participation of the entrepreneurs in the training program. Ten factors were taken for the study to find out the factors which are highly prompting the entrepreneurs to participate in the training programme. The present study is mainly empirical in nature and based on the survey method. Both primary and secondary data were collected for the study. Secondary data of the study comprised information from the publications of District Industries Canters and various banks. Primary data were collected from 100 trained entrepreneurs by administering them an interview schedule. Hypotheses have been framed to find out the relationship between the social variables and attitude. This has been analyzed by adopting Analysis of Variance Test (ANOVA).The factors motivating the respondents to attend the training were measured by applying simple arithmetic mean. On the basis of the findings of the survey, it is observed that for a greater success of the program certain modifications have to be brought in the Entrepreneurial Development Programmes.
 

  PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF SMALL HOTELS IN TANZANIA
Amit Sharma, Jeannie Sneed
 


The purpose of this research was to analyze performance of small hotels in three major cities in Tanzania – Dar es Salaam, Arusha, and Mwanza – using unit-level financial data. Results showed that small hotel efficiency in these three cities is being impacted by scale and location effects, and an inefficient use of labour input. Continued focus on increasing capacity utilization and allocating resources to develop human resources are the challenges facing industry practitioners and government policy makers. This study contributed to literature through a comparative spatial analysis of small hotels’ performance using novel data collection methods.
 

  HOW TO MEASURE GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE PERFORMANCE IN A SERVICE ENTERPRISE ? A CASE STUDY OF THE CREDIBILITY OF VIGEO’S RATING OF CAISSE D’EPARGNE  Joel Ernult ,Arvind Ashta
 


Certain behaviour by firms may be considered unfair and that people are willing to go so far as punish firms who behave unfairly. This and the development of consumerism and other movements, especially with the rapid growth of information diffusion technologies, has led to firms wanting to maintain images of good citizens who act fairly in all walks of life, adhering to principles of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility. However, with all firms saying that they are socially responsible, it is not possible for the public to distinguish information from noise and the public is left with the classic adverse selection problem in which it will ultimately believe no one. There is therefore a credibility gap. One solution is to go in for rating organizations to certify that the firm in question is discharging its social responsibilities. For the rating agency to be credible, it has to be independent, objective, transparent and base its evaluation on a theoretically sound model. This paper looks into the complexity of such a model and questions whether any single global performance measure is possible. It studies a French rating agency, Vigeo, and its evaluation of one French bank, Caisse d’Epargne, to determine if the Vigeo model respects these criteria of credibility.
 

  SERVICE QUALITY PERCEPTION AND SATISFACTION: A STUDY OVER SUB-URBAN PUBLIC HOSPITALS IN BANGLADESH Md. Shahriar Akter, Mohammad Upal, Umme Hani
 


Access to good public services is critical for the poor in developing countries if they are to rise out of poverty. Their perceptions about health services seem to have been largely ignored by health care providers in those countries. That such perception, especially about service quality, might shape confidence and subsequent behaviors with regard to choice and usage of the available health care facilities is reflected in the fact that may lead patients avoid the system or avail it only as a measure of last resort. Those who can afford it seek help in other countries, while preventive care of early detection simply fall by the wayside. Patients’ voice must begin to play a greater role in the design of health care service delivery process in the developing countries. This study is, therefore, patient-centered and identifies the service quality factors that are important to patients. It also examines their links to patient satisfaction in the context of Bangladesh. A field survey was conducted. Evaluations were obtained from patients on several dimensions of perceived service quality including responsiveness, assurance, communication, discipline, and baksheesh. Using gap analysis (expectation and perception) and one sample t-test, significant outputs were found between the five dimensions and patient satisfaction. Implications and future research issues are discussed.

 

  STATUS OF PUBLIC SERVICES IN KARNATAKA - A COMPARATIVE DISTRICT LEVEL ANALYSIS
Basavaraj S. Benni
 


Very few studies in India have highlighted the persistent ‘development gap in public services’ within the country, both inter-state as well as intra-state. Today, in the 21st century there is no denying the fact that globally, there is a development ‘gap’ not only between nations but within them, as well as within the sub-regions of the nations. Karnataka is no exception to this universally observed and accepted reality. No doubt Karnataka is one of the most developed States of India. Information technology is now the most established sector in the state. However even Information Technology and other public services are not evenly spread throughout the state and are observed to cause a development ‘gap in public services’ within the state, resulting also in a conspicuous business environment, much to the disadvantage of the rural areas. The present work basically aims at examining the regional public services disparity among the districts of the Karnataka state and to identify their degree of development in public services on the bases of composite development index.
 

  THE PRICING OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED SERVICES: INSIGHTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Joëlle Debely, Magali Dubosson, Emmanuel Fragniere
 


Most of the pricing schemes applied in the service sector are devoted to "service commodities" like airplane seats or hotel rooms. These techniques called dynamic pricing or revenue management exploit the fact that service commodities are sufficiently standardized. Service activities are traditionally described with the help of the IHIP paradigm (Intangibility, Heterogeneity, Instantaneity and Perishability). Indeed, compared to the production of goods, services will typically display a high degree of most of the 4 IHIP dimensions. As such, the intangibility and heterogeneity of knowledge-based services make that automated pricing schemes are not easy to model. In our recent research, we are exploring different kinds of potential pricing schemes that could be used to determine a "fair" price taking into account the point of views of providers and consumers of knowledgebased services. To answer this question, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach essentially grounded on the environmental sciences. The main contribution of this paper is to integrate dollar-based valuation methods, normally used in the valuation of ecological services, to support the definition of prices adapted to knowledgeservices. We are also discussing the difficulty of pricing intangible externalities and its consequences, as well as the difficulty of assessing the Willingness-To-Pay (WTP), which is an inherent problem of these approaches. Dollar-based valuation methods are composed of 3 main families of approaches: implied market decisions, experimental market methods, and surrogate market techniques. We present in the paper several case studies based on each of these approaches that we have developed for the tourism industry.
 

  VALUE CHAIN FOR HIGHER EDUCATION SECTORCASE STUDIES OF INDIA AND TANZANIA
Urvashi Makkar, Elisante ole Gabriel, S.K.Tripathi
 


This paper is an effort to develop what ought to be a new dimension of the value chain, which will cater to the service sector with special reference to the Higher Education sector. Porter’s Value Chain has been used as a reference to build another value chain for services. Besides this, the present paper attempts to trace the major challenges arising in the global and domestic higher education environment due to fast changing environmental factors. A discussion on value management, co-creation and delivery of value forms part of this paper. Higher Education sector of Tanzania and India have been used as the reference in conceptualising a general value chain for services. This paper also suggests some innovative measures to enhance the competitiveness of higher education services in the era of knowledge economy.
 

  SUCCESSFUL SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE CASE OF THE EAGLEHAWK RECYCLE SHOP
Jessie Harman
 


This paper provides a detailed analysis of a case of social entrepreneurship widely recognised in Australia as successful. It seeks to answer the question: What are the factors associated with successful social entrepreneurship? Using Austin, et. al’s (2006) Framework for Social Entrepreneurship, the author suggests a number of factors in the key areas of: opportunity, people, financial resources, economic and institutional factors, organisational factors and social value. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for practitioners, policy makers and researchers of social entrepreneurship.

   
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