Volume 1 Number 2 (October 2001- March 2002)

  COSTING STAFF TURNOVER IN HOSPITALITY SERVICE ORGANISATIONS
Conrad Lashley
 


The level of staff turnover in hospitality service organisations has been shown to be high across a range of large and small companies as reported by a research project commissioned by the British Institute of Innkeeping. The research showed that 30 firms operating a pub estate of directly managed properties were experiencing high levels of staff turnover. The earlier paper reported that some firms covered in the survey have no formal records of staff moving into and out of their organisations and managers frequently had a fatalistic view about staff turnover. The need to replace staff who leave the organisation represents a considerable added cost to the business. This paper demonstrates that managers are faced with added direct costs associated with the replacement of former employees. In addition to this there are a number of indirect costs associated with lost customers and other hidden but none-the-less real costs. This paper costs out the levels of staff turnover at unit, area, organisational and sector levels. Given the volume of staff turnover and the high extra costs involved, it is surprising that few firms make managers accountable for reducing staff turnover levels.
 

  INTRODUCING YIELD MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN HOTELS :GETTING THE TECHNICAL / HUMAN BALANCE RIGHT
Bob Brotherton, Rebecca Turner
 


This paper contains study of the introduction and implementation of a Yield Management (YM) system in a 4-star branded chain hotel. Its essential focus is reflected in its title, namely; the technical/human balance. Behind this lies the observation that, when moving to a YM environment and associated business culture, hotel companies tend to place too much emphasis on the technical and system-building aspects of YM and too little on the human aspects. The implication being the proposition that the effectiveness of the transition to, and eventual normalising of a YM business culture and operating environment is likely to be considerably reduced where such an imbalance is evident. Though the potential benefits available from an effective fusion of human and technical aspects in organisational work systems, i.e. socio-technical systems, was documented decades ago, this study shows that hotel companies may still have not learnt the key lessons such work produced.
 

  CAUSAL MODELLING METHODOLOGY IN TOURISM: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS
Prakash Chathoth
 


This study captures the relationship between three constructs, i.e. the economy, the infrastructure, and tourism to explain the direction and magnitude of the relationship between these constructs. To do so, an apriori multidimensional causal model was hypothesised and tested using Structural Equations Modelling methodology. The economy was hypothesised to have a positive significant relationship with the infrastructure construct and a negative relationship with the tourism construct, while the infrastructure construct was hypothesised to have a positive significant relationship with the tourism construct. The sample comprised of 189 countries, which was extracted from the World Bank (1995) data set. Results supported the structural relationship between economy and infrastructure and infrastructure and tourism. Contrary to the hypothesised relationship, the direct relationship between the economy and tourism was found to be insignificant. The significance of this study is in terms of verifying causal relationships between constructs at the aggregate level using countries as the unit of analysis.
 

  INDIAN SOFTWARE INDUSTRY : STRUCTURE, TRENDS AND CONSTRAINTS
Chandana Chakraborty, C. Jayachandran
 


Based on a survey of software-related companies in the major cities of India, this paper critically examines the organization and size of the Indian software industry. Based on the analysis, the paper also outlines the future possibilities for the industry and identifies its major constraints towards growth in the desired direction. With regard to organization and size, the analysis suggests the following broad trends. First, it suggests that the industry is represented mainly by private domestic firms, majority of which are small both in terms of their assets and level of earnings. Second, it reveals that more than 80% of revenue for this industry is generated in the export market. Further, the export market is concentrated in the
U.S., which accounts for 60% of the total export revenue. Third, a compositional breakdown of export indicates that the industry relies mainly on software services export, and lacks diversification in packaged software products. This is in sharp contrast with the export pattern of its competitors in Asia and Latin America. With regard to future trends, the analysis suggests that despite opportunities, growth potential of the Indian software industry would depend mainly on degree of reform in infrastructure planning and regulatory rules.
 

  USING FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT TO IMPROVE URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES – THE CASE OF HANOI, VIETNAM  Nguyen Thi Binh Minh, A.T.M. Nurul Amin, Hideharu Morishita
 


Rapid pace of urbanization and lack of resources to provide Urban Environmental Infrastructure and Services (UEI&S) is leading to severe urban environmental problems in developing countries. Another phenomenon that is taking place at the same time in the cities of developing countries is arrival and, in some cases, rapid increase in Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). It is important to know how resource poor cities of developing countries can improve their urban environment by using FDI for the provision of infrastructure and services: an essential component of the Urban Environmental Management (UEM). Although both FDI and UEM are well-researched fields of study, the nature of the link between two has not been studied. This paper presents a conceptual framework for the study of this link for Hanoi-Vietnam. The central question that has emerged from this work is how to involve foreign/ private investors in the provision of UEI&S, especially in water supply and sanitation sector in Hanoi. The research question was why it is difficult to attract FDI in the water and sanitation sector in Hanoi/ Vietnam and what is it that Vietnamese/Hanoi governments should do to involve foreign investors into provision of this infrastructure? This research also touches on the related issue of recent involvement of increasing number of actors in the urban scene; devolved city governments, international organizations and multinational infrastructure companies.
 

  USER INVOLVEMENT IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS PLANNING LEADS TO STRATEGIC SUCCESS: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY
Ramraj Palanisamy, Sushil
 


This paper presents empirical findings for relationship between user involvement in Information Systems (IS) planning and strategic success of IS. User involvement has been considered in two stages of IS planning. In strategic planning of IS, information requirements analysis and architecture are considered as the two stages. For strategic success of IS, IS enabled organizational change, IS enabled competitive advantage, and IS enabled organizational learning are considered. Field generated measures for the strategic success of IS were developed by idea engineering. Hypotheses are formulated to test the relationship between user involvement and IS strategic success variables. Empirical data was collected by a questionnaire survey to test the hypotheses. IS users and planners participated in the survey. The survey covered 42 organizations from eight sectors with a sample size of 296. Respondent’s relevance for the survey was ensured. Scales table describing the dimensions of user involvement and IS success was used to synthesize the responses. Univariate results for research variables are presented in optimistic, most likely and pessimistic scenarios. The dimension-wise values of a variable are given to gain more insight into the status of user involvement and IS strategic success in the surveyed organizations. Mixed results were obtained in hypotheses testing. The results of statistical testing on the research hypotheses show that user involvement in IS planning influences IS enabled organizational change and IS enabled organizational learning but doesn’t show a significant relationship with IS enabled competitive advantage. The study also shows user involvement in one stage of IS planning influences the level of participation in the subsequent stage.
 

  ARCHITECTURE OF WEB-BASED INTELLIGENT COLLABORATIVE LEARNING : SYSTEM DESIGN AND PEER MODELING
Jianhua Zhao, Kedong Li
 


This paper discusses architecture of web-based intelligent collaborative learning system (WebICL) and delves upon (systems design and peer modeling). A systems framework has been introduced, which has been designed based on the web-based collaborative learning fundamental theory. The peer modeling includes knowledge-based peer modeling, general peer model and virtual peer model in WebICL. The objective of this study is to implement an intelligent and flexible web-based intelligent collaborative learning system and to facilitate learners learning performance in web-based environment.

   
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