Volume 2 Number 1 (April - September 2002)

  ORGANISATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND STRATEGY IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY
Prakash K. Chathoth, Michael D. Olsen
 


Organisational leadership is considered as a key to success of firms. Although several authors of the likes of Drucker and Lewitt have talked about this concept; by and large, firms within the hospitality industry have yet to put this concept to practice in the global as well as the local market domains. Understanding this concept in terms of how it is put to use is essential for firms’ success, especially for those firms that are still in the process of striving to become industry leaders. This paper delves into the concept of organisational leadership, both from a micro and a macro perspective, while highlighting the steps taken by one such firm in the hospitality industry. The leadership perspective is discussed in the context of the Indian hospitality industry to highlight how the concept can be applied to developing markets.
 

  EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND EMPOWERMENT IN HOSPITALITY, RHETORIC OR  REALITY – SOME OBSERVATIONS FROM INDIA  Venkatesh Umashankar, Akshay Kulkarni
 


In recent years, researchers, commentators, consultants and practicing managers have come out with the imperative of the empowered and hence motivated employee for sustenance of the organization in a world characterized, among other things, by the free flow of ideas, knowledge, information, skills, resources and most importantly people. The contention of this paper is that service sector employees, because of their ‘high–touch’ requirements, have a more immediate and pressing need to be provided with ‘extra’ motivational support within the modern organization. Secondly, the paper also tries to link the very high rates of employee turnover in the hospitality sector in particular, to this factor of empowerment and motivation. The paper, through the description of standard operating procedures and work conditions prevalent in the relevant industry, then tries to explain why employee motivation in the said industry is at such a low-ebb. A cultural perspective is also provided wherein the feudalistic basis of transactions evident in the industry is delineated. The paper concludes with the reasons there for and suggestions thereto, which may bring positive change.
 

  MAPPING THE CONTRACT: AN EXPLORATION OF THE COMPARATIVE EXPECTATIONS OF GRADUATE EMPLOYEES AND HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS WITHIN THE HOSPITALITY, LEISURE AND TOURISM INDUSTRIES IN THE UNITED KINGDOM   Deirdre Kelley-Patterson, Christeen George
 


This research begins the process of mapping out Human Resource strategies appropriate to the needs of graduate employees. The perceptions and attitudes of recent graduates working in the Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure(HTL) sector and managers with responsibility for graduate development were explored. This study looks at the elements that make up the initial psychological contract of graduate employees on first encounter with the sector and the types of organisational Human Resource (HR) practices that are seen as meeting the needs of employees. It was found that, underlying the surface impression of the contract as essentially relational, there were important differences between graduate employees and management/organisational contract expectations. Graduate recruits had contractual expectations that can, generally, be described as transactional but employers have expectations that are both relational and transactional. A number of areas of misunderstanding are identified as are Human Resource practices which are seen as breaching the contract.
 

  DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF AN INTEGRATED SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN AN INTERNET ENVIRONMENT   Prabina Rajib, Deepak Tiwari, Gaurav Srivastava
 


The Supply Chain Management is progressively becoming Internet based. This is critical for high velocity markets like those of fast moving consumer goods. With the evolution of New Supply Chain Management techniques and models, the net-based Supply Chain proves to be a major challenge. With the advent of XML and the adaptation of organizational structure to the web based databases and structured data exchange format, new tools have been developed that can exploit these databases to implement efficient business practices over the internet. The present day Information System architecture removes all barriers in the information flow and provides solutions to slash waste and maximize flexibility. In this context, we report implementation of an e-commerce application using web-enabled databases and structured data exchange.
 

  REORIENTING HRD STRATEGIES FOR TOURISTS’ SATISFACTION
Nageshwar Rao, R.P. Das
 


The World Tourism and Travel Council (WTTC) has estimated that by the year 2010 India’s travel and tourism potentials can provide to our economy a substantial resources–Rs.5,00,000 crores as contribution to GDP, Rs.130,000 crores as capital investment and Rs.160,000 crores as export earnings (Bezbaruah,1999). Paradoxically, while global international tourism is a $400 billion business, India’s share is mere $1.5 billion and we are getting only 0.33 percent of world tourists arrival out of 550 million, despite of the country’s rich cultural heritage and diverse tourist attraction. Therefore the challenge before Indian tourism industry is to promote service marketing approach to delight both the international and domestic tourists in order to attract them in large number to reach our target from this sector. A recent study on service industries revealed that service firms and its employees in India have a strong inclination to improve upon the customer orientation and customer services (Agrawal, 2001); therefore, the present paper highlights how the Indian tourism industry can reorient its HRD strategies in order to satisfy and delight its customers to survive in the global competition. Tourism has fast emerged as a major socio-economic and political activity all over the world. Even for many of the Third World countries which own their freedom during the mid-twentieth century, tourism has been a new found source of earning foreign exchange. The prediction of Mr. Harman Khan, an eminent futurologist of the USA, that almost two billion people would be traveling in the year 2000, ranking tourism as one of the largest industries of the world is now holding good. Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru had a great fascination for the tourism and the tourists and he described India “as a land of contrast”. Our history, wildlife, colorful fairs and festivals, sandy beaches, sunny climate and exotic culture have always enchanted and attracted the people from distant lands. Over the years, India’s foreign exchange earnings from tourism have increased significantly.
 

  OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES IN EDI APPLICATIONS IN FINANCIAL MARKETS
M. Thenmozhi, R. Shanthi
 


The traditional business environment is changing rapidly as customers and businesses seek flexibility to change trading partners, platforms, carriers and network at their will. Competitive advantage was once based on structural characteristics such as market power, economies of scale or a broad product line. Today, the emphasis has shifted to capabilities that enable a business to consistently deliver superior value to its customers through better co-ordination and work force management, product and service customization and supply chain management. The developments in information technology such as EDI and information super highway will enable the business to exchange information among constantly changing sets of customers and suppliers on a global basis and thereby deliver more value to customers. It will become a powerful business tool that no organization can do without. The application of EDI has extended to all trade and trade related activities. But firms and financial institutions view the I-way with a mix of eagerness, fear and confusion. However, the development of the financial market is highly dependent on the use of EDI, particularly in the stock markets, banking sector and insurance sector operations. Hence, this paper attempts to examine the application of EDI in financial markets, particularly, banking sector, stock markets and insurance sector. The opportunities and threats inherent in the application of EDI and challenges ahead are discussed.
 

  PATIENTS’ PERCEPTION OF MEDICAL SERVICES
D.P.S. Verma, Renu Sobti
 


This paper reports the findings of a study undertaken to assess patients' perception of the medical services provided by doctors and health institutions (both government and private) and to examine the extent of patients’ satisfaction with these service and their satisfaction with surgical operation. It is found that the patients were more dissatisfied with the services provided by government health institutions in comparison to private health institutions. Further, patients were found to be dissatisfied not only with the quality of services provided but also with the behavior of the doctors and the para-medical staff and with the doctors’ attitude of not providing the necessary information about the illness and the treatment to be given.
 

  ESTIMATING COST OF GOVERNMENT HEALTH CARE SERVICES IN INDIA
Suresh Kulkarni
 


This paper reports findings, conclusions and recommendations of a study estimating cost efficiency in government provided health care services. A maiden attempt is made to develop a separate framework for aggregate and unit cost analysis to evaluate cost efficiency. The framework is applied to five years financial data of three well-functioning and not-so-well -functioning community health centers (CHC’s) in a state. The study finds available financial data highly inadequate for unit cost analysis. In particular, the existing system of financial reporting contains broad items/subheads and is hence too aggregative for purposes of unit cost analysis. Information on cost of inputs provided by government to CHC’s is not available. The accounting procedures are not uniform among the CHC’S. These limitation notwithstanding, some important conclusions have been drawn, such as-well and not-so-well, functioning CHC’s were cost inefficient, implying that financial performance and physical infrastructure do not necessarily go together. Aggregate cost analysis showed that neither cost ratios nor cost shares followed norms. Both types of CHC’s either overspent or under spent and concentrated the cost share in one item namely salary. Unit cost analysis showed that it was highest in a least expected activity ‘primary’ intervention in both categories of CHC’s. Secondly wide variations in activity wise unit costs, cost ratios, cost shares, notwithstanding, unit cost in family welfare services was lower than unit cost in medical services in all five years in all CHC’s. This confirms that cost efficiency and physical performance are not necessarily related to each other. Author’s main recommendation is that for the purpose of cost efficiency, financial efficiency analysis of health care facilities rural as well as urban centers, should be instructed to prepare expenditure statements, both activity wise and input wise.
 

  REGULATING THE MOBILE IN ASIA PACIFIC
Vinayshil Gautam, Sanjay Sinha
 


Globally telecommunications, has been traditionally controlled by the government, as have been most other infrastructure industries. It is true that in old days, telecom had probably been one of the most regulated industries all over the world. However, over the past decade, there has been an explosive growth in regulatory bodies in core infrastructure industries as telecom aviation, and power throughout the world. ITU reports that there are now over 84 independent1 telecom regulatory agencies in the world as against only 10 before 1990. Regulatory agencies may be defined as entities within the government whose primary function is channeling and directing of economic activities of firms through formulation and enforcement of rules intended to serve public interest. It is clearly difficult to find a single rationale for regulation either in the developed or in the developing world. Regulation is essentially a means of preventing the worst excesses of monopoly and is not a substitute for competition. Actually, regulation as practised in today’s world is much more than preventing monopoly and economic regulation. Research shows that the roles of a regulator today include, spectrum allocation (licensing methods, terms and conditions, compliance)

  • regulating competition (recommending number of operators, recommending the need and timing for introduction of new service providers)
  • settling disputes between operators (though looking at innumerable court cases in the last 5 years, the disputes seem to be more between operators and the regulator themselves
  • ensuring technical compatibility between operators
  • protecting interests of consumers of telecom services and social benefits to the economy and the industry
  • regulating tariffs, terminating charges
 
   
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